Wall Linings

Portland Stone Internal Wall Linings can be used in a variety of locations ranging from Commercial and Public Buildings to domestic properties. Wall Linings are designed to cover a structure and carry no load. There are three types of Internal Wall Linings that are designed by the method of attachment.

Internal Stone Cladding

The load of the cladding can either be supported with a load bearing fixing or the load of each stone can be transferred to the structure which will allow for open joints if required. 

If a load bearing fixing is used to take the load, then restraint fixings similar to external cladding are required for all stones. For larger areas such as atria and large commercial reception areas where the stone rises above 7m, it may be necessary to introduce additional load bearing fixings and compression and possibly expansion joints. Suitable sealants should be used for these joints. Movement joints should coincide with any movement joints in the supporting structure.


Stone Thickness

Most internal stonework is designed at 50mm thick, but it may be appropriate to consider using thinner stones. 

The factors that affect the calculation are:  

  • Stones’ strength
  • Panel size
  • Fixing locations
  • Type of fixing

Annex 1 in the cladding section provides further information on the stone thickness


Joints

Joints are normally specified as 5mm +-1.5mm. The mortar for the joints should match the colour of the stone and be slightly weaker than the stone. The recommended mix is: 1 White Portland Cement, 2 Hydrated Lime and 8 to 9 Portland Stone Dust.

Wall Tiles

Structure

The backing structure needs to be properly prepared to ensure that it is sufficiently accurate, will provide the correct adhesion and will carry the load of the stonework. 

The weight of 20mm Portland Stone is approximately 46kg per square metre. BS 5385 Part 1: 1995 provides further guidance of the suitability of backing structures, however this standard is currently being re-written and the maximum thickness for wall tiles is 12mm in the early drafts.


Movement Joints

Consideration should be given at the design stage to the provision of movement joints. The type and location of movement joints involves consideration of the construction materials, bedding systems, anticipated temperature and humidity conditions, the size of the area to be tiled and the movement joints in the existing structure.


Fixing

The designer will need to ensure that the adhesive is suitable for Portland Stone and the intended backing structure. In some cases additional mechanical fixings may be required. Advice should be sought from adhesive manufacturers, but the designer should be aware that 400x400mm 20mm thick is likely to be the maximum tile that most adhesives can reliably hold.


Joints

The tolerance for standard tiles allows the designer to have 4m  joints +-1mm. The grouting operation should not start until the bedding has thoroughly cured and can be completed using a proprietary grout or white cement/Portland Stone Dust mix.

Lightweight Tiles

There are a number of new lightweight products on the market that are applicable where weight is a critical factor.

Options include aluminium honeycomb backing, lightweight concrete backing and stone bonded to a ceramic tile. In all cases the stone is very thin, typically 3mm thick, but the strength is provided by the backing. Albion Stone is working with a number of partners to bring these products to the market but we recommend that the design and installation is treated on a project by project basis at this stage.

Construction Maintenance 

Delivery and Packaging

All products leaving our works are packed in a manner to ensure safe delivery to site.

This entails protection by CFC free polystyrene strips, shrink-wrapping and delivery on suitably sized pallets, frames or crates. These normally contain a maximum of 1 tonne for safe handling on site. It should be noted that it is the customer's responsibility to ensure safe unloading of delivery vehicles.


Storage and Handling

A suitable storage area will need to be set aside for the stone, which should be stored on firm, level surfaces and, to avoid contamination, should be sited away from wet or muddy areas.

Storage should be as near as practical to the areas of working in order to minimise handling, damage and waste. Pallets should not be stacked on top of each other. Should it be necessary to store the material on site for any length of time, it should be protected from the elements and the environment.

The designer will need to be aware of the manual handling regulations and ensure appropriate lifting equipment is available to move and fix the heavy stones.

Maintenance 

Sealing or impregnating the walling is an option if the stones are located in an area that is possibly subject to staining. 

However, in most situations we would recommend leaving the stone to develop a natural patina on the surface.

In most internal situations, cleaning with a damp cloth will remove any surface grime. Any spillages that could potentially stain should be treated promptly with clean water. Bleach, household soaps and detergents should not be used on Portland Stone.

Structure

The stone panels should be fixed to a suitable backing structure that is capable of holding and restraining the stonework. This can be blockwork, brickwork, metal frame or stud walls providing they are designed to carry the load.

Fixings

Portland Stone Internal Wall Linings can be used in a variety of locations ranging from Commercial and Public Buildings to domestic properties. Wall Linings are designed to cover a structure and carry no load. 

There are three types of Internal Wall Linings that are designed by the method of attachment:

  • Fixed by Mechanical methods, Cladding - ie stainless steel cramps
  • Fixed by Adhesive, Wall Tiles
  • Lightweight Tiles

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